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रविवार, 25 सितंबर 2016

Prevention and treatment of Cancer: An Ayurvedik approach


Cancer in India: World ranking –   

According to a data recorded by W.H.O. in 2014, Indian society has found highly prone to oral cancer, cervical cancer, esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and ovarian cancer; thereof death ranking in the world is 9th, 51st, 52nd, 75th and 95th respectively. All this is because of erroneous life style specially the habits of tobacco and alcohol. Such cases can be controlled by correction in the life style and practicing the anti cancerous fruits, vegetables, spices etc.

Problem –  
Treatment of cancer is still not satisfactory owing to the low prognosis, painful chemo and radiotherapy and high cost of the treatment. Since life style plays a great role in the etiology and carcinogenesis, medicines are not enough to cure the cancers. To crush the cancer, preventive measures and safe medicines should be taken into account. Here, Ayurveda emits a ray of hope to cancer patients as well as to the patients having life style generated disorders. 

Concept of cancer in Ayurveda –
A living body is a conglomeration of some organic substances which are especially designed for ever-changing life phenomena. Life phenomena are very complicated processes requiring balanced body humors, balanced state of sense-faculties and sound condition of sense-organs, sound mind and Soul. Any derangement in any of the components may cause abnormal life phenomena i.e. disease. Any derangement in all the components simultaneously may cause cancer which depends on the degree and intensity of vitiation of the body humors in a particular subject. Causes of vitiation of the body humors are wrong utilization of food, wrong practices of conducts, wrong state of mind and physical and chemical factors.

Erroneous life style makes a person prone to cancer –  
Erroneous life style makes the habits against to nature which provides the etiological factors suitable to carcinogenesis. Use of narcotics, type of utensils used in cooking, cooking in High temperature, microwave oven, food adulteration, food habits, pesticides, pollution, artificial sweeteners (Saccharine, Aspartame, Acesulfame potassium, Cyclamate, Sucralose, Neotame), unwholesome conducts and some unavoidable stimulants forced by अधर्म e.g. electromagnetic radiation etc are the factors favorable to carcinogenesis.     
                                              
Cooking in High temperature can make the food carcinogenic –
Cooking in high temperature can cause production of mutagens like heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). HCAs are chemicals formed when amino acids and creatine (muscle meat) and sugars are cooked using high-temperature methods, such as pan frying or grilling directly over an open flame. PAHs are formed when fat and juices from meat grilled directly over an open fire drip onto the fire, causing flames. These flames contain PAHs that then adhere to the surface of the meat. PAHs can also be formed during other food preparation processes, such as smoking of meats.  

अधर्म makes etiological base of the cancer –
The अधर्म encompasses any action or practice done by us affects the nature and natural resources negatively. In the scientific era, initiation of the Industrial revolution was an insult of science and धर्म. It has polluted the air, water, soil and even our life style and social configuration too resulted in great harm to biodiversity and health. Since last fifty years the condition has become worst in all the aspects of life and environment. Now the human beings are entrapped in their own intellectual blasphemy and facing the pathological war of mutagens and a vast group of oncogens just owing to the practice of अधर्म.       
Free radicals play an important role in the carcinogenesis –    
The free radicals can cause oxidative stress and are extremely reactive and have the potential to damage the cell membrane phospholipids by a reaction called lipid per oxidation and thus can be cytotoxic. They can damage the D.N.A. materials too resulting in mutation, oncogenic activation and carcinogenesis. They attack proteins and can provoke immune response.
The free radicals are reactive oxygen species include hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, singlet oxygen (high energy form but lowest excited state of dioxide molecule), hypochlorite radical, and various lipid peroxides. They are formed naturally as a waste by-product during the metabolic processes in the cells of living bodies. Some environmental toxins e.g. pollution, solar and cosmic radiation, alcohol, smoking and toxins etc. may contain high levels of free radicals or stimulate the living cells to produce more free radicals.
The role of antioxidants in prevention and treatment of cancer –
Antioxidants (FRS – Free Radical Scavengers) are molecules that neutralize free radicals and protect the cells, protein and DNA by donating an electron to reactive oxygen. They can be obtained from the diet and plant products. The most popular and abundant antioxidant vitamins are ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), alpha tocopherol (Vitamin E), retinol (Vitamin A) and beta-carotene (a precursor of Vitamin A). The exogenous antioxidants prevent the free radical damage associated with the development of cancer. Antioxidants block or reverse the oxidative changes in body substances and cells.

Principles of the Ayurvedik approach to prevention and treatment of cancer –
Ayurveda believes in balancing the body humors by prescribing the balanced diet and wholesome conducts as to provide internal environment unsuitable to carcinogenesis. Since all the life phenomena either metabolic or pathological depend on energy which is gained through the food items one takes, one can design his/her own pattern of internal environment responsible for either health or diseases. Antioxidants are the key factors in prevention and treatment of the cancer. Ayurveda advises the natural antioxidants to prevent cancer and biochemical agents to treat the same in the form of herbs and other bio-products. Cancer can be prevented by being a धार्मिक (not being a religious but practicing the scientific life style) in true sense i.e. correction in life style, especially habits of food and conducts, adopting the correct cooking style and avoiding the food items and beverages causing production of carcinogens.           

Food items which are wholesome in cancer –

The wholesome spices are – turmeric, garlic, onion, cloves, black piper, cardamom, cinnamon, star anise (Illicium verum), fenugreek and black cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum). The wholesome vegetables and fruits include ipomea aquatica, amaranthus spinus, apium graveolens, kappa (Manihot utilisima), sweet potato, cabbage, broccoli, beet, tomato, lemon, carrot, gooseberry, blue berry, black berry, passion fruit, apple, wall nut and pumpkin seeds.    

Herbs which can cure the cancer –
भल्लातक (Semecarpus anacardium), हल्दू/दारूहरिद्रा  (Berberis aristata),अस्थिश्रृंखला (Cissus quadrangularis), Marijuana (Cannabis indica), Bush wood berry (Hylandia dockrillii), Ipomoea quamoclit , Sickle-leaved or hare's-ear (Bupleurum falcatum), Cancer bush or Balloon pea (Sutherlandia frutescens), Baebed skullcap (Scutellaria barbata), Red clover (Trifolium pretense), Pau D’arco or LaPacho (Tabebuia hepatophylla), Milk thistle (Silybum marianum), Goldenseal (Hydrastis Canadensis), Oldenlandia diffusa, Scutellaria  barbata, Fever few (Tennacetum parthenium) and Parsley (Petroselinum crispum).   

Tea and cancer prevention –

Tea (Camellia sinensis) contains polyphenols, alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine), amino acids, carbohydrates, proteins, chlorophyll, volatile organic compounds, fluoride, minerals and trace elements. Polyphenols, particularly catechize compounds are antioxidants responsible for the health benefits that have been attributed to tea, especially green tea. The most active and abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG).  
Polyphenols, especially EGCG and ECG have substantial free radical scavenging activity and may protect cells from DNA damage. Tea polyphenols have shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, angiogenesis and tumor cell invasiveness. In addition, tea Polyphenols may protect against damage caused by UV radiation, and may modulate immune system function. Green teas have been shown to activate detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and quinine reductase that may help protect against tumor development.

Role of Vitamins and micronutrients in preventing the cancer
   
Cancer type  
Wholesome edibles
Pharmacological properties
                                                      
All cancers
Citrus fruits
Contain flavonoid - Quercetin which is anti Inflammatory,
Antioxidant and apoptotic. Quercetin also blocks *NF-kB activation, and has been found in animal studies to prevent colon and lung cancer.
Coconut
Micronutrients and antioxidants.
Broccoli, cabbage,  cauliflower
Contain a flavonoids– Indole-3-carbinole blocks cancer cell growth by inducing enzymes that help to metabolize carcinogens. It modulates nuclear transcription factors. Inhibits the invasion of normal tissue by invasive cancer cell.
cruciferous vegetables
Contain sulfurophane which have strong chemo preventive effects; induces phase-2 enzymes that detoxify carcinogens; induces apoptosis, inhibits NF-kB, and scavenges free radicals.
Green Tea
Polyphenols, especially EGCG and ECG.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Onion
Rich source of Quercetin which prevents damage to cell DNA by protecting strands from breakage.
Cancers of the breast, prostate, stomach, pancreas
 and colon
Grapes,
dark chocolate
Contains a polyphenolic compound - resveratrol. Like quercetin, resveratrol can Induce apoptosis, suppress NF-kB activation, and inhibit the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. It also suppresses nitric oxide synthesis, inhibits the inflammatory substances COX-2 and lipoxygenase, and impedes tumors by reducing their ability to grow blood vessels.
Breast cancer
Centratherum anthelminticum 
Antioxidant property.
Colon cancer
Fenugreek
Seed’s fiber contain saponins, mucilage etc. binds to toxins in the food and flush them out which helps to protect the mucous membrane of the colon from cancers.

* NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival        .
           
Cow urine: as a potent medicine to add to chemo and radiotherapy of cancer –

1-     Cow urine can kill the number of drug resistant bacteria and viruses. Recently the cow urine has been granted U.S. Patents (No. 6896907 and 6,410,059) for its medicinal properties, particularly for its use along with antibiotics for the control of bacterial infection and fight against cancers. Through extensive research studies a cow urine distillate fraction, popularly known as ‘ark’, has been identified as a bioenhancer of the activities of commonly used antibiotics, anti-fungal and anti-cancer drugs. Cow urine enhances the immunocompetence and improves general health of an individual; prevent the free radicals formation and act as anti-aging factor; reduces apoptosis in lymphocytes and helps them to survive; and efficiently repairs the damaged DNA.
2-     It contains sodium, nitrogen, sulphur, Vitamin A, B, C, D, E, minerals, manganese, iron, silicon, chlorine, magnesium, citric, succinic, calcium salts, phosphate, lactose, carbolic acid, enzymes, creatinine and hormones (1). Experimentally it has been concluded that fractions of cow urine obtained by solvent extraction possess antimicrobial activity due to presence of aforesaid components those are solely responsible for the action (2). It has again been observed that cow urine enhances the phagocytic activity of macrophages and thus helpful against bacterial infections. It also facilitates the synthesis of interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 (3, 4), augments Band T-lymphocyte blastogenesis, and IgA, IgM and IgG antibody titers (5). Presences of urea, creatinine, स्वर्ण क्षार (aurum hydroxide), carbolic acid, phenols, calcium and manganese in the cow urine have strongly explained for exhibition of antimicrobial and germicidal properties of cow urine (1, 6, 7). On the other hand uric acid’s antioxidant property and allantoin correlates with its anticancer effect. Urine consumption improves immunity is due to presence of स्वर्ण क्षार and fastens wound healing process which is due to allantoin (8).

REFERNCES
1.       Jain NK, Gupta VB, Garg R, Silawat N. Efficacy of cow urine therapy on various cancer patients in Mandsaur District, India - A survey. Int J Green Pharm 2010; 4: 29-35.
2.       Jarald E, Edwin S, Tiwari V, Garg R, Toppo E. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of cow urine. Global J pharmacol 2008; 2(2): 20-22.
3.       Chauhan RS. Panchagavya Therapy (Cow pathy)- Current status and future directions. Indian Cow 2004; 1:3–7.
4.       Singla S, Garg R. Cow urine: An elixir. Innov J Ayurved Sci 2013; 1(3): 31-35.
5.       Kumar S. Analysis of Cow’s Urine for Detection of Lipase Activity and Anti-Microbial Properties. J Pharm Biol Sci 2013; 7(1): 01-08.
6.       Kumar AA. Study on Various Biochemical constituents in the urine of cow's buffalo and goat, thesis submitted to the C.S.A. Univ Agr Techn, Kanpur (U.P.) 2001;p. 13.
7.       Achliya GS, Meghre VS, Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK. Antimicrobial activity of different fractions of Cow Urine. Indian J Nat Prod 2004; 20:14-6.

8.       Randhawa, G.K. Cow urine distillate as bioenhancer. J Ayurveda Integr Med Oct-Dec 2010; 1(4)240.

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